понеделник, 7 октомври 2013 г.

На конференция в Италия

От 3 до 5 октомври бях на конференция в Бари, Италия. Домакин беше Университетът "Алдо Моро". 
 Това е втората конференция на ESTIDIA на тема: Dialogue-driven Change in the Public Sphere. 
 Тя се проведе под патронажа на Mrs. Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth.

В конференцията взеха участие представители на 22 университета от 14 страни.

Моят доклад беше на тема: The Education Reforms, Public Discussions and Social Change in Bulgaria

Ressume: The report is an attempt to present the practices in Bulgaria to implement social change through education reform and new legislation in the education system.

The first aim is to investigate the connection between theoretical research, scientific publications, teachers, educational management, on the one hand, and the administrators in the Ministry of Education and political decision-makers, on the other hand.

The second aim is to make an overview of the main topics of discussions related to social reforms in the education sector during the last 25 years.

The education system is a conservative social structure and it is difficult to change and generally seeks to preserve the status quo. Is this really true or is one of the myths circulated to withhold attempts to modernize and improve? Let's look back and see what has changed in the Bulgarian school in the last 25 years? [5]

Before 1989 in Bulgaria the educational system was highly centralized and hierarchical, as well as this current practice at present. Two years after the transition - in 1991 is considered a new Education Act [1], which suffered a 28 amendments to 01.01.2012. For twenty years, we make more than one change per year. Since 1999 we have an special Act for level of Education, General Education Minimum and Curriculum [2], who also suffered a decade nine amendments. Scientific justification of the reforms carried out by the National Institute of Education which was a part of the Ministry of Education. After the democratic change the education management began to be realized as a product of a political aim but not as a result of scientific approaches. This effectively led to the closure of the institute. At the same time the education experts understand that is necessarily the complex educational policies conducted by the Ministry of Education. Most experts in the Ministry of Education have changed often.

The Bulgarian politicians try to establish legal documents, they write strategies, concepts and national programs. The recent National development program concerning the school and pre-school education [3] was adopted by the National Assembly in 2006 and the deadline is 2015. This program has an ambition to implement the reform of the education system; to change the philosophy of the reform as well as it has the aim to start structural modification. The program is a result of some strategies and conceptions but the real effects are reduced. Every new minister prefers to edit last law [4] or to present new law for adoption by the National Assembly. The brief overview of the Bulgarian education legislation is necessary because the framework establishes social opportunities and the legal base is very important to finalize the change and innovation in the Bulgarian schools.

Simultaneously with internal conditions relating to the entry of Bulgaria into the European Union education legislation could be synchronized with the European norms and Bulgaria is governed by EU directives and to be included in international initiatives, many of which are aimed at improve the quality of education. As already mentioned for reform and change talks in four years and the goal is relatively constant - improving access to education and increased its quality. Unfortunately the reforms are quite controversial and most teachers and principals are afraid of any change and innovation, they have the assumption that the reform is not a way for obtaining positive results and that the disadvantages will be more numerous. The Ministry of Education initiates the programs and reforms and managed them. The degree of consideration and planning of the idea is a part of the obligations of the same management body. These characteristics clearly outline the difficulties to implement innovative changes in the Bulgarian education system, the strong centralization in the management and stiffness regulation.

It is well known that every innovation creates resistance. The resistance could be reduced if the teachers and education managers receive permanently sufficient information in connection with the reforms and changes. Another possibility is the involvement of teachers, directors and education experts in the design and implementation of innovations. The third possibility has connection with the discussion about the negative results on the potentially affected persons and institutions.


  1. Закон за народната просвета. Обн. ДВ, бр. 86 от 18.10.1991 г и посл. изменения


  1. Закон за степента, общообразователния минимум и учебния план. Обн. ДВ, бр. 67 от 27.07.1999 г. и последв. изменения. http://www.mon.bg/opencms/export/sites/mon/left_menu/documents/law/zkn_obr_minimun.pdf
  2. Национална програма за развитие на училищното образование и предучилищното възпитание и подготовка (2006 - 2015) http://www.minedu.government.bg/opencms/export/sites/mon/left_menu/documents/strategies/programa_obrazovanie.pdf
  3. Проект на Закон за предучилищното и училищното образование. http://www.mon.bg/opencms/export/sites/mon/left_menu/documents/documentsproject/2012/proekt_zakon_obrazovanie_MS_19-10-2012.pdf
  4. Тоцева, Я. Образователните иновации и съвременното българско образование. В сб.: Иновации и интерактивни технологии в образованието, С., 2012, стр. 5-10

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